In the Fangaia were isolated colonies of bacteria that live in temperatures above 90°C including the "Bacillus acidocaldarius" and the "Caldariella acidophila", not to mention the archaebacterium known as "Sulfolobus solfataricus". On the walls behind the Bocca Grande vegetate, in conditions of high temperature and acidity, thermophilic unicellular algae such as the "Cyanidium caldarium".
It is also known the presence of a particular insect, a new species of collembola called "Seira tongiorgii".
Bacteria With the name of "extremophilic" bacteria are currently indicated all the micro-organisms that live in extreme environments,considered difficult for both human beings and for most of the higher organisms. In recent years, these bacteria have acquired a renewed interest for the development of new industrial production processes. The "Sulfolobus solfataricus" is used in particular for the production of organic combustible liquid acids and thermostable enzymes, used in the food industry for the production of sugar syrups.
INSECTS "Seira tongiorgii" is a kind of collembola new to science discovered in the Solfatara in Pozzuoli in 1989. Collemboli are the ancestors of winged insects: in fact the oldest known insect is a collembolo, "Rhyniella praecursor", found in a piece of amber from the Devonian period, i.e. dating back about 400 million years ago; for this reason they are sometimes called "living fossils".
The "Seira tongiorgii" does not show morphological details, but exerts a remarkable physiological adaptations that allow it to live in close contact with a substrate extremely acidic and rich in sulphuric emissions, which is that of the Solfatara, prohibitive for other species of collemboli. Precisely these physiological adaptations suggest that this is an endemic species, that is a species exclusive of the Solfatara in Pozzuoli.